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Аренсбургская культура — североевропейская культура верхнего палеолита

 
Аренсбургская культура — североевропейская культура верхнего палеолита (11 тыс. до н. э.). Основу составляла охота на северного оленя с использованием лука и стрелы. Исследована стоянка Штельмоор.

The Ahrensburg culture (11th to 10th millennia BC) was a late Upper Paleolithic culture during the Younger Dryas, the last spell of cold at the end of the Weichsel glaciation. The culture is named after village of Ahrensburg, 25 km northeast of Hamburg in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein where wooded arrow shafts and clubs have been excavated. There archaeologists have found three important settlements:

* Meiendorf from the Elder Dryas, ca 10000 BC– ca 9700 BC (uncalibrated), with finds from the so-called Hamburg culture.
* Stellmoor with a lower layer from the Hamburg culture, and an upper layer from the Ahrensburg culture.
* Borneck which also belongs to the Ahrensburg culture.

The settlements were in proximity to the rim of the Ice, and the landscape was tundra with bushy arctic white birch and rowan. The most important prey was the wild reindeer, and the hunters ranged areas as large as 100 000 km².

Stellmoor was a seasonal settlement inhabited primarily during October, and bones from 650 reindeer have been found there. The hunting tool was bow and arrow. From Stellmoor there are also well-preserved arrow shafts of pine intended for the cultures characteristic skaftunge arrowheads of flintstone. A number of intact reindeer skeletons, with arrowheads in the chest, has been found, and they were probably sacrifices to higher powers. At the settlements, archaeologists have found circles of stone, which probably were the foundations of hide teepees.

The relationship between the Ahrensburg and the Hamburg cultures is uncertain. The settlement at Jels in Sønderjylland, probably belongs to the Hamburg culture. Another culture of reindeer hunters, the Bromme culture, is known from several settlements in Denmark and from the settlement at Segebro, near Malmö, Swedens oldest known settlement.

The Bromme culture belongs to the warmer Allerød Age between the Older and the Younger Dryas, ca 9700 BC-9000 BC, with white birch forests. The Bromme culture and the Ahrensburg culture are similar in that tanged points are found in both assemblages, but here the similarities end - although "Lyngby points" are found in both assemblages.

The earliest reliable traces of habitation in the northern territories of Norway and western Sweden date to the transition period from the Younger Dryas to the Preboreal. More favourable living conditions, and past experience gained through seasonal rounds, prompted increased maritime resource exploitation in the northern territories. The Hensbacka group on the west coast of Sweden exemplifies the cultural fragmentation process that took place within the Continental Ahrensburgian.[1> [2> Instead of new immigrations at the beginning of the Mesolithic, the discovery of deposited bones and new dating indicate that there was no (significant) break in settlement continuity. New knowledge provides aspects for a further autochthonous development, with a rapid climatic change stimulating a swift cultural change.

[quote>The Ahrensburg culture (11th to 10th millennia BC) was a late Upper Paleolithic culture during the Younger Dryas, the last spell of cold at the end of the Weichsel glaciation. The culture is named after village of Ahrensburg, 25 km northeast of Hamburg in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein where wooded arrow shafts and clubs have been excavated. There archaeologists have found three important settlements: * Meiendorf from the Elder Dryas, ca 10000 BC– ca 9700 BC (uncalibrated), with finds from the so-called Hamburg culture. * Stellmoor with a lower layer from the Hamburg culture, and an upper layer from the Ahrensburg culture. * Borneck which also belongs to the Ahrensburg culture. The settlements were in proximity to the rim of the Ice, and the landscape was tundra with bushy arctic white birch and rowan. The most important prey was the wild reindeer, and the hunters ranged areas as large as 100 000 km². Stellmoor was a seasonal settlement inhabited primarily during October, and bones from 650 reindeer have been found there. The hunting tool was bow and arrow. From Stellmoor there are also well-preserved arrow shafts of pine intended for the cultures characteristic skaftunge arrowheads of flintstone. A number of intact reindeer skeletons, with arrowheads in the chest, has been found, and they were probably sacrifices to higher powers. At the settlements, archaeologists have found circles of stone, which probably were the foundations of hide teepees. The relationship between the Ahrensburg and the Hamburg cultures is uncertain. The settlement at Jels in Sønderjylland, probably belongs to the Hamburg culture. Another culture of reindeer hunters, the Bromme culture, is known from several settlements in Denmark and from the settlement at Segebro, near Malmö, Swedens oldest known settlement. The Bromme culture belongs to the warmer Allerød Age between the Older and the Younger Dryas, ca 9700 BC-9000 BC, with white birch forests. The Bromme culture and the Ahrensburg culture are similar in that tanged points are found in both assemblages, but here the similarities end - although "Lyngby points" are found in both assemblages. The earliest reliable traces of habitation in the northern territories of Norway and western Sweden date to the transition period from the Younger Dryas to the Preboreal. More favourable living conditions, and past experience gained through seasonal rounds, prompted increased maritime resource exploitation in the northern territories. The Hensbacka group on the west coast of Sweden exemplifies the cultural fragmentation process that took place within the Continental Ahrensburgian.[1> [2> Instead of new immigrations at the beginning of the Mesolithic, the discovery of deposited bones and new dating indicate that there was no (significant) break in settlement continuity. New knowledge provides aspects for a further autochthonous development, with a rapid climatic change stimulating a swift cultural change.
Ahrensburg культуры (11-10-е тысячелетие до н.э.) был конце Верхнего палеолита культуры во Младшего Dryas, последнее заклинание холода в конце Weichsel оледенения. Культура названа в честь села Ahrensburg, в 25 км к северо-востоку от Гамбурга в Германии Шлезвиг-Гольштейн, где лесные стрелки валы и клубы были раскопаны. Там археологи обнаружили трех важных пунктов:

* Meiendorf из Старшего Dryas, CA 10000 BC-CA 9700 BC (uncalibrated), с находки из так называемого Гамбург культуры.
* Stellmoor с нижнего слоя из Гамбурга культуры, а верхний слой из Ahrensburg культуры.
* Borneck который также принадлежит к Ahrensburg культуры.

Поселения в непосредственной близости к краю льда, а ландшафт был с пышными тундры Арктики белой березы и рябины. Наиболее важным стало добычей диких оленей, и охотники варьировали областях, как крупные, как 100 000 км ².

Stellmoor была сезонной поселений, населенных главным образом в октябре, и кости от 650 оленей были найдены там. Охота инструмент был лук и стрелка. С Stellmoor Есть также хорошо сохранившиеся валы стрелка сосны, предназначенные для культуры характерно skaftunge стрел из flintstone. Число малонарушенных оленьих скелетов, с стрел в грудь, был найден, и они, вероятно, жертвы в высшие полномочия. На поселения, археологи нашли каменные круги, которые, вероятно, были основами скрыть teepees.

Отношения между Ahrensburg и Гамбург культур является неопределенным. Поселения на ССЭП в Ютландии, вероятно, принадлежит к культуре Гамбурга. Другая культура оленей охотниками, Bromme культуры, известен из нескольких пунктов в Дании, а из поселения на Segebro, близ Мальме, Швеция старейших известных поселений.

Bromme культура относится к теплым Allerød возрасте между пожилыми и Младшего Dryas, около 9700 до н.э.-9000 до н.э., с белыми березовыми лесами. Bromme культуры и Ahrensburg культуры схожи в том, что tanged центры находятся в скопления, но здесь сходство конца - хотя "Лингби точек" находятся в скопления.

Самые ранние следы надежных проживания в северных территориях Норвегии и западной Швеции сроки переходного периода от Младшего Dryas к Preboreal. Более благоприятные условия жизни, и накопленный опыт, накопленный в ходе сезонных туров, побудило увеличить морских ресурсов в северных территориях. Hensbacka группы на западном побережье Швеции примером культурной фрагментации процесса, который проходил в рамках континентального Ahrensburgian. [1> [2> Вместо нового иммиграционного в начале мезолита, открытие хранение костей и новых знакомств показывают, что существует не было (существенные) перерыв в урегулировании преемственности. Новые знания обеспечивает аспекты для дальнейшего развития автохтонных, с быстрым изменением климата стимулирует быстрое изменение культуры.[/quote>

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